By: Gene Walden, Senior Finance Editor December 20, 2018
If you already contribute to a traditional 401(k) plan at work, you are taking a big step toward saving for your retirement. But many of the nearly 100 million Americans who participate in a 401(k) may still fall short of the funds they’ll need to finance a comfortable retirement.1
By also contributing to a Roth IRA in addition to your 401(k), you may be able to not only supplement your retirement savings, but also provide more flexibility in addressing your financial situation during and after your working years.
A traditional 401(k) can be an excellent vehicle for retirement savings – particularly if your company offers a matching or partially matching contribution. Adding a Roth IRA account to your retirement portfolio would provide some benefits not available with a traditional 401(k). Typically, 401(k) contributions are automatically withdrawn from your salary each pay day and deposited in your account. Your traditional 401(k) is funded with pre-tax contributions, which typically lower your current year’s taxable income, but your withdrawals in retirement would be taxed.
By contrast, a Roth IRA doesn’t provide a tax benefit for the current year, but any earnings on your contributions would grow tax-deferred, and you would have the benefit of tax-free withdrawals later if you meet the requirements for a qualified distribution. There are several requirements that make a distribution “qualified,” which are found in detail in IRS Publication 590.
While you wouldn’t be able to contribute as much to a Roth IRA as you would to a 401(k), over a period of years, your contributions could add up to a nice supplement to your 401(k) savings.
For the 2018 tax year, you can contribute the lesser of $5,500 or your taxable compensation to a Roth IRA. If you’re 50 or over, you can contribute a total of $6,500. For 2019, the limits increase by $500 to $6,000 and $7,000, respectively. Note that these limits apply to your combined contributions to Traditional and Roth IRAs.
Even if you contribute the maximum amount to a 401(k), you can still contribute to a Roth IRA in the same year, unless your income exceeds the eligibility limit. To be eligible, single filers’ Modified Adjusted Gross Income must be under $135,000 for tax year 2018 and under $137,000 for 2019. Contribution levels would be reduced on a sliding scale for singles with Modified Adjusted Gross Income between $120,000 and $135,000 in 2018 and between $122,000 and $137,000 in 2019.
Married couples filing jointly must have Modified Adjusted Gross Income $199,000 for tax year 2018 and under $203,000 for 2019. Contributions would be reduced on a sliding scale for married couples filing jointly with Modified Adjusted Gross Income between $189,000 and $199,000 in 2018 and between $193,000 and $203,000 in 2019. See more details on Roth IRA income restrictions.
While the primary benefit of adding a Roth IRA to your investment arsenal is the potential for building a bigger retirement plan, there are some other benefits to pairing a Roth IRA with your 401(k):
Roth IRA funds are available for other uses.
Even before you turn 59 ½ you can use your contributions to a Roth IRA for other life milestones, such as educational funding for your children, a down payment on a home, or to pay for an unexpected family emergency. In fact, contributions (not earnings) can be withdrawn from your Roth at any time for any reason, federal tax and penalty free. You can also withdraw your earnings from your Roth IRA, but you must meet certain requirements in order to have a federally tax-free “qualified” distribution. If you don’t meet these requirements, your non-qualified distribution may be taxable and subject to an early withdrawal penalty unless you qualify for an exception. For more detail review IRS Publication 590.
There are no upper age restrictions on contributing to a Roth IRA.
While contributions to a 401(k) must stop if you are no longer working for the employer, and traditional IRA contributions must stop the year you turn 70 ½, with a Roth IRA, you can continue to contribute regardless of your age, as long as you have sufficient earned income to cover the contribution.
There are no required minimum annual distributions with a Roth IRA.
While you may have to begin taking minimum distributions the year you turn 70 ½ from a traditional IRA and a 401(k) (unless you’re still working for the company and you are not a 5% or greater owner of the company), with a Roth IRA, you are never required to take a distribution during your lifetime. Although your beneficiaries are subject to Required Minimum Distributions, they would typically be a tax-free “qualified” distribution if the Roth IRA has met the 5 year requirement.
The investment options available within an employer plan are generally determined by the employer and will vary from a few to unlimited. With a Roth IRA, you may have the flexibility to choose how you want your assets invested to best fit your financial goals.
You have the flexibility to choose between taxable and tax-free withdrawals.
If you have both a Roth IRA and a 401(k), you potentially have more control over your tax situation (particularly prior to age 70 ½). For instance, if you want to minimize your taxes during a particular year, you may be able to take more money out of your Roth IRA. Contributions can be withdrawn from your Roth IRA anytime and, if your account has been open for at least five years, your earnings may also be withdrawn tax-free after you turn 59 ½. Once you are subject to required minimum distributions from your 401(k), then you could limit your withdrawals from your Roth IRA to facilitate additional tax-deferred and potentially tax-free growth on those dollars.
Advantages and disadvantages of rolling over your 401(k) to a Roth IRA
Rolling over your 401(k) to a Roth IRA is one of multiple options available for your retirement plan – including leaving your assets where they are. By leaving your money in a 401(k), you typically wouldn’t need to be concerned with administrative work since that is handled by the employer. Your 401(k) also may have loan provisions which you may find attractive, and the 10% early withdrawal penalty doesn’t apply to distributions if you separate from service with the employer in the year you are age 55 or older.
Before making a move, you should weigh the advantages and disadvantages of a 401(k) with those of a Roth IRA.
To qualify for a rollover, you must either be 59 ½ or completely separated from your employer, unless you qualify for a special exemption such as disability.
When you do the rollover, you would be responsible for paying income taxes on the amount of pretax 401(k) assets you roll over to the Roth IRA. For that reason, if your employer’s plan allows it, you may want to consider making a series of rollovers over a period of years rather than in one lump sum, which might put you in a higher tax bracket depending on the amount of assets in your account.
Other considerations, such as rolling over more in low income years and less in high income years, might also play into your rollover tax strategy. You should seek professional tax guidance to determine if this would be an appropriate option for you. On the other hand, if you leave your assets in your 401(k) account, you will continue to benefit from tax deferral. In addition, if your 401(k) includes stock of your employer, there may be other tax benefits available.
By moving the money to a Roth IRA, you would no longer be subject to the required minimum distribution rules of the 401(k), and you would be free to take your money out at your own discretion. In addition, if you roll over multiple 401(k)s, you may be able to have all of your retirement savings in one place. This may make your retirement account easier to manage and monitor progress, and if you are working with a financial representative, you may have access to professional guidance.
The rollover option may be particularly beneficial for individuals who are already retired. Although you may not be eligible to make a contribution to a Roth IRA if you have no earned income, you may still be able to rollover as much money as you want from your 401(k) to your Roth IRA (paying taxes on the pretax assets you roll over). Keep in mind, if you are subject to required minimum distributions in the year you roll 401(k) funds over to a Roth IRA, you must take the distribution before rolling over your assets.
After the money is transferred to your Roth IRA, any investments within the account would typically be tax-deferred and would be withdrawn tax-free if you meet the requirements for a “qualified distribution.” You may also have the other benefits of a Roth IRA, such as the flexibility of a wider selection of investment options, and more control over when you withdraw your money and how you use it.
When considering moving your retirement assets, it’s important to review your needs and circumstances along with the possible benefits. Consider factors such as investment options and fees, the services offered by your plans and providers, the flexibility you may have or not have with distributions, and even creditor protections. For more information, see Making Sense of Rollovers and Transfers.
No 401(k) at work? Start Your Own Tax-Advantaged Retirement Savings Plan
If you don’t have a 401(k) at work, you can get started now investing some of your earnings in a Thrivent Mutual Funds traditional IRA or Roth IRA. You can get started with as little as $50 a month by taking advantage of our automatic purchase program.2 (See: Start Building Your Nest Egg for Just $50 a Month).
If you have your own business, you may be interested in opening a Simplified Employment Pension Plan (SEP) or a Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees (SIMPLE), which offer tax-deferred savings benefits similar to a 401(k).
At Thrivent Mutual Funds, we recommend you consult your tax advisor to make sure you’re getting the most out of your investments. Thrivent Mutual Funds and their representatives cannot provide legal or tax advice.
1 American Benefits Council, 401(k) Fast Facts, October 2017
2 New accounts with a minimum investment amount of $50 are offered through the Thrivent Mutual Funds “automatic purchase plan.” Otherwise, the minimum initial investment requirement is $2,000 for non-retirement accounts and $1,000 for IRA or tax-deferred accounts, minimum subsequent investment requirement is $50 for all account types.